Types Of Elevators

Different Types Of Elevators

There are many different types of elevators commonly used in commercial facilities, this post should help should help outline the most popular types are what they are used for!

There are a lot of different elevators in different buildings. Elevators will carry a person and even items to where it needs to go on different levels of a building, within a certain weight. During the 1850s, structures were being built much taller and then elevators became quite common. What made them so popular is that they had unique safety mechanisms that were made by Elisha Otis. Most modern buildings with multiple floors are required to have access to other floors than just stairs.

Different Types Of Elevators

The 6 type of elevators that are used the most. Each of the types will have differing variations:

  1. MRL Elevators
  2. Traction Elevators
  3. Pneumatic Elevators
  4. Hydraulic Elevators
  5. Climbing Elevators
  6. Industrial Elevators

No MRL or Machine Room Elevators

A MRL or No Machine Room Elevator is just another way to say traction elevator that doesn’t have a machine room over the elevator shaft. It is located in the override space. Whenever it needs repairs, it will have to be accessed through the cab of the elevator which is at the top of the elevator. The control boxes are in the control room and this is located at the highest landing which is about 150 feet from the elevator across from the elevator shaft.” [1]

Being able to have a maximum travel distance of 250 feet, a machine room less elevator will have speeds of 500 ft/min. The MRL and geared traction elevators will have similar start costs, and maintenance costs but the MRL will have a lower energy cost. Gearless traction elevators and MRL elevators are almost the same in energy efficiency. They take up less space, are reliable, but the MRL elevator will be the most popular and best for mid-rise buildings that have a distance of less than 250 feet.

A big reason that the United States has been slow to adopt MRL elevators is because building codes that have provisions about the motor being located in the hoist-way. Slowly the codes are being changed, but it is best if you check with local authorities about MRL elevators.

Gearless and Geared Traction Elevators with Machine Rooms

  • Gearless Elevators
  • Geared Elevators
  • MRL Elevators

Gearless and Geared elevators will use ropes to lift them. The ropes go over a wheel and then the wheel is attached to electric motors that will be located on top of the elevator shaft. These are used for high rise to mid-rise elevators and will often have fast travel times than your average elevator. This type of elevator will use counter weights which make the more efficient when running because of the offsets of the weight in the car which include passenger weight, which will make extra work for the elevator. An elevator that is using geared traction will have a gearbox that is attached on the motor. The gearbox will drive the wheel and then move the ropes. Elevators that are geared can move 500 ft./min. and the maximum travel distance is only 250 ft.

Elevators with gearless traction will have a wheel attached the motor. Gearless traction elevators can move 2000 ft./min. The maximum travel distance will be 2000 ft., which makes them the only ones that can be used in high rise buildings. Gearless traction elevators can be high cost, but the maintenance costs are average, and they are often more efficient than a geared elevator. Checking the ropes and sheaves for wear and tear regularly is important. These will wear traction between the sheave and ropes and cause slippage and it will continue to slip which causes the efficiency of the elevator to go down and makes it dangerous to use.

Elevators with traction will have a restriction on height, as it is decided by the rope length and weight. There are newer materials that can be used with traction elevators to make them stronger, but lighter and the material is carbon fiber which will let an elevator reach new heights.

Pneumatic Elevators

This elevator type is raised and lowered by air pressure. Using physics, the air pressure difference between the above and below areas of the cab will create a vacuum that transports the elevator using air. It will be the vacuum pumps or turbines to pull the elevator up and then release the air to allow it to go down. Pneumatic elevators are perfect for homes as they are compact. They don’t have noisy hoist-ways and you don’t have to excavate a pit.

Hydraulic Elevator

  • Roped Hydraulic Elevators use a combination of ropes and a piston to move the elevator.  Maximum travel distance is about 60 feet.” [2]
  • Non-telescoping elevator
  • Telescopic elevator
  • Hole-less elevator
  • Holed elevator

Hydraulic elevators will have a piston that can be found on the base of the elevator to support it. The piston shoves the elevator upwards while the motor moves hydraulic fluid or oil into the piston. While the elevator comes down, the fluid is released through a valve that is inside the piston. These elevator types are used in buildings that have less than 8 floors and it only travels 200 ft./min.

On the lowest level, right across from the elevator is going to be the machine room. Hydraulic elevators will have a sheave that extends under the elevator floor to the elevator pit and while it is coming down the pistons retract. There are several configurations that will use telescoping pistons that collapse which allow a shallow hole in the pit.

The maximum travel distance is around 60 ft. A hydraulic elevator that is hole-less will have the pistons on the side of the cab. For this configuration, the telescoping piston will be fixed in the pit, so it will not need a hole in the pit or a sheave. Telescoping pistons allow the elevator to travel 50 ft., where the non-telescoping piston can only go 20 ft. There is a combination of ropes with a roped hydraulic elevator where the piston will move the elevator when it travels 60 ft.

The starting cost for these elevator types is lower as well as the maintenance cost when compared to the cost of other elevators. Hydraulic elevators will use more energy than other elevators and it is because the motor is working against gravity while forcing oil into the piston. There is a drawback of this elevator type as sometimes there is a fluid leak which causes a hazardous environment. The main reason that a hydraulic elevator isn’t popular and that is because of environmental risks in the past that cause the energy use to be quite high.

Climbing Elevators

Climbing elevators will hold the power device and will be electric dive or combustion engine driven. These are often used in work or construction areas.

Industrial Elevators

  • Incline Elevator
  • Hoist Elevator

An industrial elevator was made to hoist a lot of weight. Industrial elevators are normally hoist, or incline elevators and they are mostly used in construction, shipyards and warehouses.

Cited Sources

  1. “Types Of Elevators | Commercial | Industrial – CES.” Colorado Elevator Solutions, 21 Sept. 2017, coloradoelevatorsolutions.com/types-of-elevators/.

Elevator Problems & Solutions 2017-2018

Elevator Problems & Solutions 2017-2018

Are you’re Googling “Elevator Problems and Solutions” while searching for solutions to common elevator problems, this post should help!

There are many different reasons that an elevator could start to not function properly, which ranges from it being an older operating system to having worn out sheaves. There can be various failures with elevator equipment, which could otherwise be prevented by having a regular scheduled maintenance and preventative inspections. By having your elevator equipment inspected on a regular basis you can be reducing the amount of down time by enhancing its productivity and at the same time, lowering your energy costs by up to 15%.

Whenever your elevator is no longer keeping its average waiting time or signs that it is starting to break down, it could be a sign of it wearing out. Obvious issues may not include signs such as overheating, lower power, or a higher amount of energy use, all of which may lead to some hidden costs. By sticking to some simple maintenance practices of the elevators motor, you could be saving yourself unnecessary expenses and lower its down time.

The most common problems with elevators & their repair solutions

Listed below are some of the most common problems that elevators have, and the solutions that will help in preventing them:

1. Problem with worn sheaves

Worn sheaves can cause extra wear to the ropes and this can cause the sheaves to wear out even more.

The repair solution for the worn sheaves:

In order to prevent the premature loss of the elevators hoist rope, you would need to either re-grove the sheaves or have them replaced. First, you will want to check the groves to ensure that there is a proper fit in between the sheaves and the rope. You can also use the tools that are specifically made to help in checking to make sure that the sheaves are wearing evenly.

2. Power Failure Problem

It takes a huge amount of power to run commercial elevators. There can be damage to the motors operation or even damage to the entire system when the voltage used for running the elevator is upgraded, so if there is a history of motors problems you need a power quality survey performed.

The repair solution is an infrared inspection:

“Using infrared thermography can measure any drastic temperature changes while being able to identify potential spots for trouble prior to becoming a costly system failure. The common faults like under or over voltage can easily be found using power quality surveys as well as fuses which run hot, these can be detected using infrared imaging prior to motor failure.” [1]

3. Contamination

After the wearing starts, it will begin releasing small metal particles, which are sent into its oil and will create further issues to the elevators functioning ability. If you are not giving your elevator the proper lubrication or if it has worn seals, it can cause it to get contaminated.

Repair solution is to have an oil and lubrication analysis:

You can check for motor wear and/or contamination by performing an oil analysis.

4. Bearing Malfunction of bearings or has a noisy bearing

Many of the motor failures will be due to bearings malfunctions. Bearings that are noisy is usually due to the vibrations of the motor. The motors energy can be lowered by the variable frequency drives, causing mode currents that will do damage to the elevator by making the elevator vibrate and this could be dangerous, causing the bearings to wear more from the stray currents.

The repair solution is the use of Inductive Absorbers:

Using Inductive Absorbers is a good solution for this. CoolBLUE can absorb its currents and protect its system from breakdown at the same time. In addition, making sure the grounds are still connected, and all lower issues are secure that have been caused from the electrical noises of the ground, which can also cause the system to trip.

5. Mis-aligned Motor Drive

Always pay attention to the alignment of the electrical motor anytime it has been coupled with any other equipment. The motor bearings will wear out if it has an improper alignment.

Repair solution is to have a motor alignment:

You can detect the correct alignment or a misalignment with the use of advanced laser measures. It can also be done with a straightedge and a string. Of course, You can always go out and buy a gear machine, these have a flange mounted motor and will not need to be aligned whenever it is disassembled.

6. Failure To Open Elevator Door

When you elevator door fails to open, it can be a scary event, even more so if it’s warm in the elevator compartment or elderly people are on board.

Failures to open the elevator doors are a scary event, especially if the temperature in the elevator compartment is warm and elderly persons are on board. Furthermore, open and close failures where sensors fail to recognize legs or hands can cause the elevator door to close and pinch hands, arms or legs. This pinching can lead to limb loss, and(or) crushed bones. “Malfunctioning door operators are the cause and special attention needs to be made to the lading door locks and interlocks.” [2] Normally, these elevator malfunctions don’t cause major injuries to their passengers, but the experience, depending on the duration of time and severity of injuries can lead to potential lawsuit for damages.

Repair solution is to have a your door sensors inspected or replaced:

If you have a defective alignment on the door sensors or they are no longer working, you should get your elevator door sensors repaired. Furthermore, if the motor that opens and closes the door is bad, you will need to get it repaired or replaced.

Thanks for reading “Elevator Problems and Solutions 2017”.

Cited Sources

  1. “Elevator Problems & Solutions 2017.” Colorado Elevator Solutions, 23 May 2017, coloradoelevatorsolutions.com/elevator-problems-solutions/.
  2. “Benson & Bingham Summerlin.” Types of Escalator or Elevator Malfunctions and How They Lead To, www.bensonbingham.com/types-of-elevator-escalator-malfunctions-that-lead-to-accident-injury.

Benefits Of Elevator Modernization

Benefits Of Elevator Modernization

If you searching for the Elevator Modernization Benefits, this post should help! This article will cover the benefits of elevator modernization and what needs to be considered. In addition, when searching for elevator modernization services, we are here to assist you with that too.

Jump To Section:

Do I Need An Elevator Modernization?

An elevator’s service life averages 20 years, old than this and their performance capabilities begin to decrease. When you start to notice your commercial elevator is no longer performing as it once did, it is often the first sign of considering elevator modernization.

To learn if your commercial elevators should be modernized, depends on the satisfaction of the tenants. If you are receiving many c9ompalints regarding the elevator, then the manager needs to start considering elevator modernization to ensure an efficient and reliable service. In addition, consider the number of service calls made on the elevator over the past 12 months, if there has been an increase compared to the prior year, it can be a sign too.

Elevator Modernization Benefits

Take a look at the benefits of modernizing your commercial elevator system.

  1. Modernization Increases Efficiency 
  2. Modernizing Reduced Energy Costs
  3. Reduces Electromagnetic Noise 
  4. Modernization Compatibility & Upgrade Benefits

Modernization Increases Efficiency

Elevator modernization won’t necessarily increase elevator speed, rather, it increases the elevator’s efficiency.” [1]  One benefit of elevator modernization is that it uses destination dispatch technology to group passengers based on there desired destination. Therefore, the wait times are reduced, eliminating wasted trips to other floors. There are microprocessors with the ability of learning your building’s usual traffic patterns, and adjust accordingly. The elevator rates can be increased or decreased as well, allowing them to open and/or close quicker.

Modernizing Lowers Energy Costs

When you modernize a commercial elevator, it allows you to make it more energy efficient, reducing energy costs. During the descend, modernized elevators are able to send energy to the building, instead of simply releasing the heat. You will find it requires less energy for machines to cool the room.

Reduced Electromagnetic Noise

Computers and wireless networks are quite sensitive when it comes to electromagnetic noise. By ensuring your elevator systems are modernized, you can help reduce electromagnetic noise. However, solid-state drive elevators range in noise levels produced.

Modernization Upgrade and Compatibility Advantages

Modernization can impact Electrical performances. Older elevator generations may not be compatible with the newer solid-state drives. The reason for this is due to the new SSD’s not tolerating variations in power quality.

A closed loop door operating system may be upgraded by facility managers now, then replaced with a newer system down the road. Using a closed loop operator enables the monitoring of door positions to increase performance. In addition, the system can indicate when there is drag in the motor because of a pressure issue or something being stuck on the elevator track, allowing changes to be made. We have another post “Elevator Modernization Factors” that offer more for considering.

Evaluations for Elevator Modernization

The first step a building manager should consider when looking into elevator modernization, is the elevator modernization evaluation. This measures various areas, including acceleration, deceleration, door opening and closing times, sound, and vibrations. These factors can reveal any weak points within the elevator system to give the earliest warning of poor performance.

Full Modernization VS. Small Elevator Upgrade

“It might be possible to make small improvements, rather than undertake a full modernization, which could save thousands of dollars.” [2] A small upgrade could save thousands in costs. Obtaining an elevator evaluation can inform building managers of any areas that may need upgrading with any of the systems to ensure they are within current building codes. To help avoid future breakdowns, a regular elevator inspection is recommended.

Cited Sources

  1. “Elevator Modernization Benefits.” Arizona Elevator Solutions, 25 July 2017, blog.azelevatorsolutions.com/elevator-modernization-benefits/.
  2. Darnley, Andy. “The Benefits of Elevator Modernization.” NationwideLifts, 20 Nov. 2017, www.elevators.com/the-benefits-of-elevator-modernization/.